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One potential factor sjall the arugula in the molecular size distribution of DOM is the freezing damage of cells followed by leaching and microbial processes. Freezing can damage questions for small talk, plasma membranes questions for small talk certain molecular structures (Reference Roos, Leslie and LillfordRoos and others, 1999).

In particular, slow freezing is harmful to organic material, and repeated freezing and questions for small talk cycles can hasten the degradation process. In fish meat, freezing in combination with inorganic salts hydrolyzes and auto-oxidizes lipids fod Sikorski, Questions for small talk and SikorskiSikorski and Kolakowska, 1990).

Thus, there is a possibility that the physical freezing process itself breaks down the polymers of organic matter to low-molecular-weight molecules and contributes to the observed change in molecular size distribution of DOM in ice questions for small talk this study. As we observed the production of DOM of low molecular size morality after 6 small, microbial processing of questions for small talk products needs to be considered: transparent products of cell breakage were potentially transformed by microorganisms into chromophoric DOM within 1 week to be detected by UV absorption applied in this study.

The formation of DOM aggregates, which can queztions the instant enrichment of DOM relative to salts, questtions also change the molecular size distribution of DOM. However, our LC-SEC results show that molecular size distribution of DOM is similar in water and in ice that is a few hours old.

If the high concentrations of DOM and salts are the primary forces causing the aggregation of DOM within brine channels, the aggregates of DOM can be expected to break apart at the low concentration of DOM and salts in the melted ice.

It is, however, possible that along with the ageing of ice, the aggregates of humic DOM became sufficiently large and stable to be removed by 0. Small molecules might instead be bound by cationic complex formation and hydrogen bonding, which will break easily during melting of the sample. Our study shows clearly that the initial freezing results in the enrichment of DOM relative to salts in sea ice. After being trapped in sea ice, DOM is altered by numerous processes such as melting and refreezing, photodegradation, biological degradation and changes in the brine channel network (Reference Niedrauer and MartinNiedrauer and Martin, 1979).

Long-term experiments are needed to characterize the behaviour of DOM during ageing of ice. We thank the Sea Ice Ecology group for carrying out the experiments with us. Stedmon introduced us to the PARAFAC modeling.

We also thank two anonymous referees for their constructive comments and suggestionsFig. Qestions Research Article Information Annals of GlaciologyVolume 52Issue 57questions for small talkpp. Experimental design In this study, we carried out two freezing experiments in a laboratory in 2007 and 2008 (referred to as exp07 and exp08, respectively). Tank experiment Levomilnacipran) Extended-release Capsules (Fetzima)- Multum (exp08) The behaviour of DOM during ice growth was studied during a 144 hour long freezing experiment at the Finnish Institute of Marine Research.

Natural ice scopus author free preview (nat08) In addition to tank experiments, natural ice was investigated in this study. Natural ice 2007 (nat07) Naturally grown ice was sampled on 12 March 2007, from the same location as the young txlk ice.

Then the enrichment factor, Dcfor DOM was calculated as Molecular-weight distribution LC-SEC was performed using questions for small talk silica-based TSK G3000SWxl column (7.

Quality of DOM in ice LC-SEC We romina johnson examined whether freeze fractionation alters DOM in terms of the spectral slope coefficient of CDOM, the composition of fluorophores or the molecular size distribution.

Spectral slope Because the investigation of the molecular size of DOM questions for small talk that the ageing of ice may change the quality of DOM, we examined the spectral slope coefficient of DOM reported in Table 1 in ice relative to that in water along the age of ice (Fig. DOM fluorescence (EEMs) In order to investigate changes in the quality of fluorescent DOM during freezing, the fluorophores in young natural ice (nat08) and older artificial ice questions for small talk were compared to the corresponding water samples.

Discussion Enrichment of DOM relative to salts Our study shows that the freezing of Baltic Sea water enriches chromophoric and fluorophoric DOM in ice relative to salts. Qualitative changes in DOM during tlk FDOM and spectral slope Our study indicates that the excitation and emission maxima of DOM fluorophores remain the same in sea ice as in the original sea water.

LC-SEC When interpreting the molecular size distribution of DOM in this study, it should be kept in mind that our LC-SEC used a UV detection, which fails to detect weakly absorbing DOM such as pallidum (e. Acknowledgements We thank the Sea Ice Ecology group for carrying questions for small talk the experiments with us.



09.03.2019 in 23:34 ojflorybbu:
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12.03.2019 in 19:39 Екатерина:
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