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In modern social research however, we find social scientists employing both the positivists and interpretivist approach in the ultimate goal of having a better understanding of the society. We now turn attention to the formal sciences.

An historical study of science would not fail to recognize mathematics, logic, systems theory and information theory, as sciences. Though formal sciences do not depend on empirical observations, the logic or methods of the formal sciences are applicable in all the empirical sciences. The formal statements of the formal sciences are however, such that, they hold in all possible worlds.

Thus, the formal sciences had always aided and contributed to the growth of the other forms of sciences by providing foundational information about the structures of making inferences and describing the natural world. The above takes us to that aspect of science that applies the findings and outputs of science, that is, the applied sciences. An engagement in the historical study of science cannot but take us to fields like engineering sciences (such as thermodynamics and kinematics) and medical sciences (such as medical microbiology and biomedicine).

The inventions and technologies that man has come to experience with the passage of time are products of the application of the finding of the sciences. Thus applied sciences develop practical applications (technology) or inventions by applying existing scientific knowledge.

Without the applied sciences, for example, mankind would have been far from the idea of inventing the internet, which today has helped in creating and shaping the phenomenon called the global village. Meanwhile we herbal cigarette note the distinction between the history of science and the historiography of science. While the history of science is concerned with the historical study of Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum and the development of science, the historiography of science deals with the study of the methodology of historians of science.

Historiography itself, and speaking etymologically, means the writing of history. A study of historiography would thus imply the study of the method of writing history. In other words, while the concern of the historian of science is that of studying the origin, growth and development of science and scientific knowledge, it is the goal of the historiographer of Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum to study the methodology of writing the history of science.

Meanwhile, in line with the theme of this chapter, let us now introduce the next basic issue. Philosophy of Science is a discipline that attempts a philosophical study of science. Philosophy of science is Onureg (Azacitidine Tablets)- Multum field of study where philosophy interrogates science, Understanding the nature, meaning and scope of philosophy of science requires that we, as a first step, have a grasp of what philosophy itself is, and what philosophers do.

Philosophy is perhaps the most Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum field of study to define. Philosophers themselves do not seem Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum agree on a universally accepted definition of the discipline, philosophy. There exists many conceptions and varied definitions of philosophy. This is not to say, however, that we cannot identify some key concepts or ideas that are of interest to philosophy and by extension, the philosopher.

Thinking is like bayer price to the philosopher.

Just as humans breathe for life, the philosopher thinks, Didrex (Benzphetamine)- FDA Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum. Against the background of the above interests, likes and dislikes of the philosopher, and for the purposes of this work, we shall attempt a working definition of philosophy.

By philosophy we shall mean a critical attitude to all of existence, be it social, spiritual or scientific. Philosophy as conceived implies critical or rational thinking about the totality of what exists or may possibly exist. The tools of philosophy include logic, Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum and argumentation. Philosophy has come to be characterized with five major branches and several sub-branches.

The major branches of philosophy include metaphysics (the study of being), epistemology (the study of knowledge), logic (the science of good thinking), ethics (the study of morality) aesthetics (study of art or Doribax (Doripenem for Injection)- Multum. Examples of sub-branches of philosophy include philosophy of law (a philosophical inquiry of the nature of law and interplay between law, morality istj philosophy) and, philosophy of religion (a philosophical inquiry of the subject-matter of religion and an interplay Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum philosophy and religion).

The philosophy of science is an even more interesting sub-branch of philosophy. Logic, the study of good thinking, asks Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum is scientific reasoning good thinking. Deducible from the foregoing is the submission that the philosophy of science is concerned with thinking about science in manners that are describable as metaphysical, epistemological, ethical, logical and aesthetical.

We define philosophy of science as the critical examination of the assumptions, practices and implications of science. The philosopher of science attempts to seek answers to these questions, among others, in a manner that is critical, logical and rational. In essence flesh bacteria eating of science hold divergent views on the nature, method and purpose of science. Interestingly, however, this lack of consensus among philosophers of science, have continued to help in shaping, defining and re-defining the content and progress of science through the ages.

If there is a police for science, the philosophy of science would infact qualify that Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum. Through the ages, the philosophers of science have asked metaphysical, epistemological and ethical questions concerning science, scientific knowledge, and scientific practices.

In the philosophy of science we find interplay between philosophy and science. Thinking or philosophizing about the nature of existence informs the scientific or empirical quest for knowledge about reality. Interests in the philosophy of science have developed to the extent that this sub-branch of philosophy is increasingly becoming a major discipline with its own sub-branches.

Today for example, we can identify philosophy of specific sciences as briefly described below. The philosophy of medicine asks the epistemological question: attitudes is medical knowledge generated. There is also the metaphysical or ontological question of causation: what causal relationship exists between diseases and well-being or ill health. The philosopher of biology, for example, seeks to investigate the foundations of evolutionary theory, which is Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum central theme in biology.

The muscle soreness after working out simple question about the possibility of explaining all chemical phenomena in physical terms, have generated documented arguments to the effect that it is Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum, after all to reduce chemistry to physics.

Philosophers of physics raise and seek answers to questions such as: what is the nature of space and time. Answers to the questions and issues raised in the philosophy of social sciences have implications for the social sciences including, sociology anthropology and political science.

Contemporary literature on the philosophy of social sciences, however indicate that the philosophy of economics and the philosophy of psychology are becoming independent isoket of the philosophy of science.

The philosophy of economics and the philosophy of psychology are both rooted however in the epistemological quest for knowledge and the metaphysical quest for explanation of the nature of causal relations. Vumerity (Diroximel Fumarate Delayed-release Capsules)- Multum the philosophy of economics is concerned with the study of the foundations and morality of economics, the philosophy of psychology is on the other hand concerned with the study of the methodology or theoretical foundations of psychological investigations.

Technically, and historically speaking however science refers, first, to that kind of knowledge which people can communicate and share, and second, to the methods or process of acquiring such knowledge.

Speaking generally, by science or scientific knowledge is also meant that body of knowledge about the natural world that is not only practical or empirical but could also lead to further observation, explanation and prediction of natural occurrences. Thus, science is not just a body of knowledge about enema extreme phenomena, but a body of ordered and systematized knowledge of natural phenomena.

Scholars or students of nature before William Whewell were mostly referred to as Natural Philosophers. Identifying what should pass or go as science can be problematic.



02.02.2020 in 07:54 Дина:
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