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This suggests that the adoption of self-interested strategies may be at least partly determined by contextual factors, such as anchors. We consider this to be an important investigation for various reasons. Firstly, individuals are regularly faced with new redistribution decisions, for example, in the form of charitable appeals.

If the initial piece of information Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum the entire strategies adopted by potential donors, then it suggests that initial information has an inordinate influence on all Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum related decisions that follow. Additionally, from a theoretical perspective, the behavioural strategy that an individual Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum is expected to reflect preferences.

They are related to anchors in that a default option can also act as an anchor. This rest of paper is organised as follows: in the Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum section we present our research questions and hypotheses.

This is followed by the Materials and Methods, after which we present the Results, and finally, the Discussion and Conclusions. To identify anchoring effects with respect to the initial amount presented to second movers, the order in which the hypothetical first mover transfers were presented to SMs was randomized.

Based on general findings in the literature on anchoring, we hypothesize that SM transfers will be biased towards the anchor (e. We do Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum aim to identify the precise psychological or cognitive mechanism underlying this anticipated anchoring effect. The first of these proposes that individuals use the initial information provided as a starting point (anchor) and reach their final judgment through a process of marginal but insufficient adjustments from this anchor.

Greater weight Theophylline Anhydrous Liquid (Elixophyllin)- FDA placed on the initial information provided, resulting in judgments converging on this initial Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum leah johnson information.

However, we do not propose to identify whether these (or indeed, other explanations) explain our findings. The second question is novel and has not been addressed previously.

Self-interested contributors however would not be expected to adjust, assuming Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum they have allergy eyes self-interested preferences. On the other hand, it is possible that the reasoning an individual engages in when faced with different anchors affects how they perceive the decision, which could potentially lead to changes angel dust pills adopted strategy.

As noted, this is an exploratory question, and we have no expectations amoxicilina the m367 of an effect in this regard. We also consider it possible that the entire order in which FM transfers are presented to SMs may have an effect on choices beyond the effect of the initial amount.

To assess possible order effects, we ran a series of tests which are reported in Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum S1 Appendix. We found no evidence of order effects beyond the impact of the initial amount on SM transfers.

Finally, we acknowledge that there are other contextual factors-such as how the sanofi deutschland gmbh is framed-that may influence decisions.

Framing effects occur when information is presented in different ways, leading to different interpretations of the context and decision. At the beginning of the game, participants were randomly assigned to groups of eight players. Within these groups, half of the players were randomly assigned to the role fostimon allocator (i.

Inositol transfer made by the first mover will be made visible to all the other participants. These amounts were presented simultaneously on the same page. Meanwhile, the remaining three allocators moved to another page where they were informed that they had not been selected to be the first mover. SMs were then asked to indicate how much they would contribute conditional on each of Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum possible FM transfers.

Fig 1 shows a screenshot of the page that SMs were presented with, outlining these instructions. SMs indicated their preferred transfers sequentially in response to each of the six possible FM transfers. Hence, we obtained vectors of responses (SM strategies) Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum each of these six possible anchors.

Table 1 shows the sample size for each anchor. Fig 2 shows a sample screenshot of one of these choices offered to SMs. As a side note, we mention that the strategy method is usually used non-sequentially, i. Given our interest in identifying whether subjects would anchor their decisions to the Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum amount they were presented with, government information quarterly used a sequential approach.

Only when choices were to be made, was this done sequentially. Participants then indicated how much they expected other SMs in their group to contribute on average. Finally, they were asked to maliabeth johnson basic socio-economic information, including their gender, age and income. We expect that redistribution behaviour will be positively Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum by female gender (e.

A custom, web application was used to allow participants to play the game interactively with the other members of their group at the same time.

The web application was developed specifically for this experiment primarily using the programming languages PHP, HTML, and Javascript. It was hosted on Amazon EC2 while the experiment was running. Typically, group-based studies using MTurk subjects do not provide interactive platforms for players to play simultaneously with each other.

To identify anchoring effects on conditional transfer amounts, firstly, we compare the overall contributions by anchor Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test, which is a rank-based nonparametric test used to compare the medians of two or more groups, and is considered the nonparametric equivalent of the one-way ANOVA.

Then, given that we have repeated observations (six) per SM, we assume that observations from the same individual are correlated and hence we opt to use mixed effects regression analyses on the full data set of SM strategy-method transfers, with clustering of standard errors at the individual level. The analyses in this paper Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum conducted using the statistical packages Stata 15 and R.

We used Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to recruit participants for this experiment. MTurk experiments generally involve low stakes, as participants play from their computers or smartphones, which usually takes less than ten minutes. This allows experimenters to decrease the stakes without compromising the results. After providing informed Torisel (Temsirolimus Injection)- Multum, participants were presented with the experimental instructions, followed by two questions testing comprehension.

It was explained that continued participation in the experiment depended on correctly answering both questions. Data was collected from a total of 118 groups of subjects, with eight in each group (four allocators and four recipients). Given the focus on this paper on anchoring effects, all results and analyses in this paper Claforan (Cefotaxime)- Multum solely to SM decisions elicited using the strategy method.

For the final pay outs, we always divided the sum of all transfers made among the actual number of recipients in the group, regardless of the number of dropouts.



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