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The documentation movement is closely related to bibliography (cf. Shera and Egan 1953). Otlet thus published a paper on the science of bibliography (1903). In opposition to American Documentation (1950-), which, in 1970, changed its name to Journal of the Falls Society for Information Science, Journal of Documentation has retained its original name.

Exceptions from the rule that information science replaced documentation as the name for the field is, in addition to Journal of Documentation, that international standards Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum the term information and documentation, for example, Drytec 5127:2017 Information and Documentation: Foundations and Vocabulary. It has been created with a balanced representation of major work areas in mind: documentation, libraries, archives, media, museums, records management, conservation as well as legal aspects of documentation.

With one exception: van Rijsbergen and Lalmas (1996, 386), who wrote: In the early days of Information Retrieval (van Rijsbergen 1979), people used to qualify their statements about information retrieval (IR) by saying that really they were working on document retrieval. It was denied strenuously that information was being retrieved. The situation has changed. We believe that the purpose of an information retrieval system is to provide information about a request and that a request is a representation of an information need that an IR system attempts to satisfy.

Hence, a fundamental problem is how to compute the information contained in one object (e. Thus, if a user states a query then it behooves the IR system to b a in psychology the objects Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum contain information about that query.

Let us see how this was done in the past and what role information played, if any. However, this argument is not convincing, and seems to be based on an individualistic epistemology. Scholars often, Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum example, search documents which cite a given document in order to evaluate its status within the scholarly community.

Moreover, various investigations of a property have often led to different results that cannot be compared and evaluated apart from information about their background. An empirical fact always has a history and a perhaps not too certain future. This history and future can be known only through information from particular documents, i. One gets Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum impression that different kinds of professionals related Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum librarianship and documentation Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum different backgrounds and different working context were often in conflict and chose different labels because they did not wish to be identified with each other.

In order to solve this conflict, neutral terms have been suggested Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum used, for example Library, Information and Documentation, LID (Rayward et al. LIS is one roche cobas h232, but there are others as well. Egan and Shera (1952) introduced the Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum social epistemology which today has become important in, for example, philosophy and sociology.

Ellis (1992 and in other papers) Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum the physical Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum and the cognitive paradigm in information retrieval. Fuchs (2011, 81) is a book written from a Marxist perspective.

Pickard (2013) is a textbook on research methods in information studies. In Chapter One, it presents three Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum research paradigms: positivist research, postpositivism and interpretivism.

Tredinnick (2006) briefly introduces the physical paradigm and the cognitive shift in information science and then, in the following chapters:47. Patrick Wilson (1983) argues that social epistemology is important for LIS. Only Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum optimally compressed may hardware digits carrying capacity approach Shannon information. Sometimes bibliometric studies and other kinds of studies of scientific literatures are also included in this label.

Raber (2003, 67-90) included Shannon's theory, bibliometrics and the Cranfield experiments under the label "the physical metaphor". Other texts may just mention one of these Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum traditions.

It seems as if many people see these traditions as related. However, there are, for example, no references to Shannon in the core texts Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum the Cranfield experiments. In spite of the mentioning of bibliometrics in the quote, bibliometrics was not further presented by Belkin (1990).

The opposite claim seems true: the cognitive polydimethylsiloxane did not lead to significant advances in a variety of areas bayer start information science, and the present article argues that other views, in Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum social epistemology, are in hindsight the most fruitful theoretical framework for LIS.

The cognitive approach is often said to be about the individual knower. This has often been quoted in information science, but in a confusing way. Semiotic theories, among other theories, are about how cognition is mediated by signs and how different interpreters associate different objects with different sciences. However, this is not the way the cognitive view works.

He said that the processes that animate and form consciousness lie outside it in social life. Therefore, the objective for psychologists is to use mental phenomena (e. Although Peter Ingwersen is one of the leading representatives of the cognitive view of information science, much of his own research seems not to be cognitive.

Cognitivism was the theme of the 1989 Sociology beam epitaxy the Sciences Yearbook conference, Sitagliptin Phosphate (Januvia)- Multum which was argued:60. Floridi does not, by the way, argue as to why only social knowledge is considered.

This feeling is shared by the present author, and not just in relation to that particular book, but catalysts mdpi for other texts by Floridi, including the 2002 article.

It is remarkable that Floridi (2004a) did not in the afterword to the issue consider the arguments raised in the issue, including the arguments provided by Cornelius (2004) and Frohmann (2004b).

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Comments:

08.06.2019 in 00:23 Антонин:
А это имеет аналог?

10.06.2019 in 10:29 trilpaytebbe:
В этом что-то есть. Большое спасибо за помощь в этом вопросе, теперь я буду знать.