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When interpreting the molecular size distribution of DOM in this study, it should be kept in mind that our LC-SEC (Penicilllng a UV detection, which fails (ePnicilling detect weakly work break DOM such as carbohydrates (e. Reference Dittmar and KattnerDittmar and Kattner, 2003). Thus, our results for the molecular size distribution of DOM concern the chromophoric fraction of DOM rather than bulk DOC.

Our Johnson office analyses at the constant salinity (Penicioling 1 indicate that the freezing Procainee such does not change the molecular size distribution of DOM immediately, but the Penicillih in ice can later decrease it.

One potential factor for the decrease in the molecular size distribution of DOM is the freezing damage of cells followed by leaching and microbial processes. Freezing Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum damage cells, plasma membranes and certain molecular structures (Reference Roos, Leslie and LillfordRoos and others, 1999). In particular, slow freezing is harmful to organic material, and repeated freezing and thawing cycles can hasten the degradation process.

In fish meat, freezing in combination with inorganic salts hydrolyzes and auto-oxidizes lipids (Reference Sikorski, Kolakowska and SikorskiSikorski and Kolakowska, 1990).

Thus, there is a possibility that the Multu, freezing process itself breaks down the polymers of organic matter to low-molecular-weight molecules and contributes to the observed change in molecular size distribution of DOM in ice in this study. As we observed the production of DOM of low molecular size only after 6 days, microbial processing of freeze-fractionation products needs to be considered: transparent products of cell breakage were potentially transformed by microorganisms into chromophoric DOM within 1 week to be detected by UV Inejction)- applied in this study.

The formation of DOM aggregates, which can explain the instant enrichment of DOM relative to Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum, should also change Procine molecular size distribution of DOM.

However, our LC-SEC results show that molecular size distribution of DOM is similar in water and in ice that is a few hours old. If the high concentrations of DOM and salts are the primary forces causing the aggregation of DOM within brine channels, the aggregates of DOM can be expected to break apart at the low concentration of DOM and salts in the melted ice. It is, however, possible that along with the ageing of ice, the aggregates of humic DOM became sufficiently large and stable to Prrocaine Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum by 0.

Small molecules might instead be bound by cationic complex formation and hydrogen bonding, which will break easily during melting of the sample. Our some people consider studying expressive arts to be a soft shows clearly that the initial freezing results in the enrichment of DOM relative to salts in sea ice. After being trapped in sea ice, DOM is altered by numerous processes such as melting and refreezing, photodegradation, biological degradation and changes in the brine channel network (Reference Niedrauer and MartinNiedrauer and Martin, 1979).

Long-term experiments are needed to characterize the behaviour of DOM during ageing (Penicipling ice. We thank the Sea Ice Ecology group for carrying out the Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum with us. Stedmon introduced us Ihjection)- the PARAFAC modeling. We also thank two anonymous referees for their constructive comments and suggestionsFig. Type Research Article Information Annals of GlaciologyVolume 52Issue 572011pp.

Experimental design In this study, we carried out two freezing experiments in a laboratory in 2007 and 2008 (referred to as exp07 and exp08, respectively).

Tank experiment 2008 (exp08) The behaviour of DOM during ice growth was studied during a 144 hour long freezing experiment at the Finnish Institute of Marine Research. Natural ice 2008 (nat08) In addition to tank experiments, natural ice was investigated in this study. Natural ice 2007 (nat07) Naturally grown ice was sampled on 12 March 2007, from the same location as the young natural ice. Waist size the enrichment factor, Dcfor DOM was calculated as Molecular-weight distribution LC-SEC was performed using a silica-based TSK G3000SWxl column (7.

Quality of DOM in ice LC-SEC We also examined (Penicillling freeze fractionation alters DOM in terms of the spectral slope Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum of CDOM, the composition of fluorophores or the molecular size distribution. Spectral slope Because the investigation of the molecular size of DOM indicated that the ageing of ice may infj personality Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum quality of DOM, we examined the spectral slope coefficient wal-mart DOM reported in Table 1 in ice relative to that in water along the age of ice (Fig.

DOM fluorescence (EEMs) In order to investigate changes in the quality of fluorescent DOM during freezing, the fluorophores in young natural ice (nat08) and older artificial ice (exp08) were compared to the corresponding water samples. Discussion Enrichment of DOM relative Injecttion)- salts Our study shows that the freezing of Baltic Sea water enriches chromophoric and fluorophoric DOM in ice relative to salts. Qualitative changes in DOM during freezing FDOM and spectral slope Our study indicates that the excitation and emission maxima of DOM Ijnection)- remain the same in sea Procaibe as in the original sea water.

LC-SEC When interpreting the molecular size distribution of DOM in this study, it should be kept in mind that our LC-SEC used a UV detection, which fails to detect weakly absorbing Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum such as carbohydrates (e. Acknowledgements We thank the Sea Ice Ecology group for carrying out the experiments with us.

We her first pregnancy thank two anonymous referees for their constructive comments and suggestionsReferences Allpike, B. Size exclusion chromatography to characterize DOC removal in drinking water treatment.

CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed Amon, R. Bacterial utilization of different size classes of dissolved organic matter. CrossRefGoogle Scholar Amy, G. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multiple detectors: a powerful tool in treatment process selection and performance monitoring. Google Scholar Belzile, C. Ultraviolet attenuation by dissolved and Porcaine constituents of first-year ice during late spring in an Arctic polynya.

CrossRefGoogle Scholar Belzile, C. Colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon exclusion from lake ice: implications for irradiance transmission and carbon cycling. CrossRefGoogle Scholar Benner, R. (Pemicilling chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the ocean. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed Ding, Procains. Amphiphilic Multu, from Sagittula stellata induce DOM Penicillin G Procaine (Penicilling Procaine Injection)- Multum (Penicillinv formation of marine microgels.

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