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Data quality can only be assessed, and potential results replicated when the hardware design and specifications of measurement tools and data loggers are available to the public. We encourage use of open (i.

Data from the laboratory is often exported in formats specific to the laboratory device and typically requires some data reformatting necessary for post-processing. The format of computer-generated data (e. An open data collection and analysis pipeline includes information on (1) hardware and software used, (2) original and processed (meta-)data and databases, (3) Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum processing and analysis techniques and tools used, and (4) documentation of the overall analysis process, including assumptions and perceptual models (see Principle 1).

Re-usability and transferability of software and data processing pipelines greatly accelerates scientific progress in hydrology by reducing time wasted on re-inventing the wheel, helping discover problems in the analysis, and improving the quality of hydrologic research. A current list of data repositories commonly used by hydrologists that adhere to open science standards is kept on open-hydrology.

The best place to store data for an Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum hydrology project depends on the type and size of the data, the specific scientific domain, and other requirements stipulated by the funders and stakeholders. If an open hydrology study relies on third-party data that is not (yet) open, ask the original data creators to make the data or a data subset publicly available. Archived original, intermediate, and final versions of all data used to obtain the results of a particular study are crucial for reproducing open hydrology research.

See Principle 4 for more details on publishing data. Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum make data and analysis sharing more straightforward, a data management plan should be developed in the early stages of the research project, emphasizing open data principles and maintaining cyberinfrastructure and community standards.

Data management plans describe where data will come from, what formats it will be stored in, who will manage and maintain it, how privacy will be maintained (if applicable), and how data and results will be shared and stored in the short- and long-term. Data management plans may be required by funders where they are typically limited in length. However, extended data management plans can increase research project transparency, and can be created using publicly available templates (e. Open hydrologists should explicitly provide public access (e.

The level of detail necessary to ensure openness can differ wildly between studies. When data sources, processing, and accessibility are complex, additional descriptions in an appendix or supplementary information may be appropriate upon publication of hydrologic research.

Ideally, all data used to draw conclusions should be published publicly to facilitate reproducibility, but copyright on third-party data, privacy, or other issues related to data sensitivity may prohibit open publication of all underlying data.

Discuss, agree, and document with your collaborators what can be shared publicly as early as possible. If certain datasets cannot be shared publicly, add a statement to the final publication explaining what conditions need to be fulfilled to obtain access to the data and why some data remain private.

Relevant resources and local guidelines for data anonymization and sharing (e. When making data publicly available, open hydrologists strive to store data in universal, non-proprietary, Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum software agnostic formats that are compatible with most operating systems and include metadata (data about the data that provides background context).

For example, text and tabulated data can be stored as standard American Standard Code for Information Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum (ASCII) Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) instead of proprietary or software-specific types (e.

Even if it might be computationally efficient, avoid creating new file types that are specific to a certain model or software.

For most hydrologic data, NetCDF (i. If metadata cannot be part of the data (file) itself, store Istodax (Romidepsin for Injection)- Multum metadata in as close proximity to the data as possible.

For example, open hydrologists can include links in the metadata to where the data is stored and vice versa.

They can also use standard naming and unit conventions (e. The article gives an interesting contribution to the discussion on Open Science in hydrology. I especially appreciate the practical focus on helping researchers to get started with OS, and the linking to an online repository where new materials and resources will be shared beyond the article publication.

The manuscript needs to be revised to include the section on Chaste tree 2, which was made available as a separate file. I do not have other substantial revisions to recommend but some points for improvement and further discussion. For example, theacrine Principle 2 (open software) the list may start like:- use open-source software such as R, python or QGIS to develop your analysis- use open-source version control system (e.

Git) to manage changes to Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum code- include documentation as comments embedded in the code as much as possible- etc. I think this would help reinforce key messages and help readers navigate the (numerous) points made in the Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum reading the paper I noted down several other comments.

Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum authors essentially mention one, the Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum of being scoped, but I think others are as important. For example some researchers may be reluctant to share their software as this may bring further scrutiny and criticism of their work.

Some seem to feel a sort of "jealousy" for their software, which they don't want to electroanal modified (maybe improved. Maybe the point here is how we perceive and value intellectual ownership.

If I make my software available to others so they will (unavoidably) find bugs to fix and weaknesses to improve, does this diminish or increase the value of my original contribution. I totally agree although there is a tension here between conciseness (which is needed for readability) and completeness (needed for OS).

I think a good way to resolve the conflict is by having unlimited "Supplementary materials" along with a paper - as some journals now allow - so that authors can keep the main article focused on key findings, while giving detailed documentation of all the research process in the SMs. We use a lot of academic writing cliches in our articles, perhaps thinking it makes oral contraceptives sound more technically solid, but often it only makes them more difficult to Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum. Another issue is the recourse to hyper-specialised terms that are only understood within our small research niche - and often take different meanings across sub-communities even within the same broad discipline (a good example: the diverse uses of the term "bottom-up approach" across sub-communities in hydrology and water resource management).

Every now and then initiatives are doxycycline a to build glossaries that should help researchers navigate each other jargon, but my impression is they are quickly abandoned (for example years ago I was involved in a project on uncertainty and risk in natural hazard assessment and such Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum was one of the project outputs.

I don't think it was ever delivered. Maybe rather than building glossaries we should just do Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum to use a common and simpler language. This should include avoiding the creation of new terms for concepts that may be easily described with existing maths terminology.

This way though we make our papers unnecessarily obscure and in the long-run we collectively contribute to fragmentation of knowledge and duplication of efforts. This links back to the general tension I find between OS and the way we Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum (over-emphasise.

Maybe this sounds naive but I really wonder what are the drawbacks of "green OA" (and how it may be sustainable in the long-term for publishing companies).

Authors do not Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum publication fees, readers do not pay subscription fees (after the embargo period) as they can access the non-typeset version.

Am I missing something. A permissive license (say for example the MIT license) implies that the Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum developed by publicly-funded researchers will be freely available also to users that may make a commercial use of it - and hence may be willing to pay for a licence.

So, should universities body positive instagram away" a potential source of revenues. Is this fair to tax-payers who funded the research and related software development. For example, documentation is key for open software to be Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum used by others but developing good documentation is very time-consuming (this was a key lesson I learnt in my Olopatadine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution (Pataday)- Multum projects - see Pianosi et al 2020).

So I think there is a tension here between OS and the general "publish or perish" attitude.

Further...

Comments:

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16.12.2019 in 16:07 Эмма:
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16.12.2019 in 16:44 Осип(Иосиф):
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