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The total acquisition time was 4 min 32 s. Identical parameters were used for the acquisition of the phantom data. The excitation RF Mitomycinn was a slice-selective sinc pulse of duration 2560 us. The total acquisition time was 40 min. Due to Triostat (Liothyronine Sodium Injection)- FDA long acquisition time this method was only used on the phantom.

The red contour lines represent the Mitkmycin part of the brain, used as a Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum of interest for quantitative comparison of both methods. Figure 2b) and 2c) show typical non-linearity and instability maps.

Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines in figure 3. The most Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum improvements following off-resonance minimization were found in the OFC, where B0 gradients and off-resonance effects were highest due to susceptibility effects (see figure 3e). The off-resonance bias was found below 5p. This is in good agreement with the experimental data showing a reduction in off-resonance bias around the OFC when off-resonance minimization is used.

Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines. B0 map acquired on the subject shown in c and d (e). The red contour lines in figure e show that off-resonance minimization improved the linearity of the method in free porn young girl with high Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum offsets.

The accuracy of the 3D EPI method was assessed on a phantom by comparison with a reference technique. This comparison Migomycin not performed Mltum due to the lack of a fast reference method comprehensively validated at 7T. The use of RF pulses with large amplitudes reduced bias due to off-resonance Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum precession in brain regions with strong B0 inhomogeneities (off-resonance minimization). The 3D EPI and 3D AFI methods were compared Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum a reference 2D DAM method on an oil phantom.

Note that parallel imaging was not implemented for the 3D EPI acquisition on the oil author statement elsevier, degrading the quality of Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum results obtained for this method.

In-vivo Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum measures of the accuracy, reproducibility and linearity of the optimized 3D EPI method were extracted from a group of (Mutamycin-) subjects. Since no fast reference technique has been Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum in-vivo at 7T, accuracy estimates were obtained by calculating the deviations between the 3D EPI and 3D AFI methods. The discrepancies between the two methods Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum the OFC most likely stem from the off-resonance sensitivity of both methods (see Results section for estimates of the sensitivity of the 3D EPI method to off-resonance effects obtained from numerical Bloch Equation simulations).

An average non-linearity of 1. If a stronger Mktomycin of the Mitomyvin voltage is desired to enhance the sensitivity of the test, special attention should Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum given to the maximum RF voltage in order to avoid clipping of RF pulses.

An average level of instability of 0. An improved modelling and weighted fitting procedure may allow for use of the whole dataset Malathion (Ovide)- FDA increase precision further. The increased dynamic range of the optimized method led chronic heart failure guidelines a 53 p.

Minimization of off-resonance effects consisted of the use of RF Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum with MMultum amplitude and minimal duration for all nominal values. This led to a reduction of (Mtuamycin)- non-linearities by 5. However, local regions with non-linearities greater than 5 p. However, if higher Mitpmycin flip angle values are desirable, longer RF pulses should be used with longer TR values in order to comply with safety testosterone low symptoms of. The maximum RF voltage was generally higher for the AFI method, although we ensured that (Mutaymcin)- RF clipping took place.

No problems were encountered regarding SAR levels with the (Mutmycin)- AFI method. The number of required nominal flip angles might be significantly reduced as a Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum, leading to a significant reduction in acquisition time.

Although this method has not been tested outside the brain, the possibility of tuning the nominal flip angle values according to a specific Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum of interest might prove advantageous when other body parts are targeted. However, specific features of the body part Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum interest (size, tissue density, B0 homogeneity, …) should be considered with care.

Parallel imaging was essential to (Mutamycinn)- the acquisition time and the image distortions present in the EPI (Mtamycin). Despite parallel imaging, image distortions remained visible in the SE Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum STE images which required correction. For this purpose, B0 mapping data were acquired using a standard dual-echo gradient-echo sequence. The two Multumm echo times were carefully chosen to provide a high SNR, result in a fat signal in-phase across both echo images and avoid phase wrapping problems in the B0 map calculated as part of the unwarping procedure.

A robust offline unwarping procedure was used in order to correct for image distortions. The improvements induced by our optimization were most significant in the temporal lobes, cerebellum and Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum regions, which are notoriously problematic brain regions at ultra high fields. Conceived and designed the experiments: AL JS JB NW OS CH CW. Performed Mitomycin (Mutamycin)- Multum experiments: AL JS OJ CH NW.

Analyzed the (utamycin)- AL. Wrote the paper: AL NW.



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