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As a side note, we mention that the strategy method is usually used non-sequentially, i. Given our interest in identifying whether subjects would anchor their decisions to the first amount they were presented with, we used a sequential approach.

Only when choices were to be made, was this done sequentially. Participants then indicated how much they expected other SMs in their group to contribute on average. Finally, they Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum asked erectile provide basic socio-economic information, including their gender, age and income. We expect that redistribution behaviour will be positively influenced by female gender (e.

A custom, web application was used to allow participants to play the game polysporin with the other members of their group at the same time. The web application was developed specifically for this experiment primarily using the programming languages PHP, HTML, and Javascript. It was hosted on Amazon EC2 while the experiment was running.

Typically, group-based studies using MTurk subjects do not provide interactive platforms for players to play simultaneously with each other. To identify anchoring brands bayer on conditional transfer amounts, firstly, we compare the overall contributions by anchor using a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test, which is a rank-based nonparametric test used to compare the medians of two or more groups, and is considered the nonparametric equivalent of the one-way ANOVA.

Then, given that we have repeated observations (six) per SM, we assume that observations from the same individual are correlated and hence we opt to use mixed effects regression analyses on the full data set Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum SM strategy-method transfers, with clustering of standard errors at the individual level. The analyses in this paper were conducted tar soap the statistical packages Stata 15 and R.

We used Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum recruit participants for this experiment. MTurk experiments generally involve low stakes, as participants play from their computers or smartphones, which usually takes less than ten minutes.

This allows experimenters to decrease the stakes without compromising the results. After providing informed consent, participants were labcorp billing with the experimental instructions, followed by two questions testing comprehension.

It was explained that continued participation in the experiment depended on correctly answering both questions. Data was collected from a total of 118 groups of subjects, with eight in each group (four allocators and four recipients).

Given the focus on this paper on anchoring effects, all results and analyses in this paper pertain Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum to SM decisions elicited using the strategy method. For the final pay outs, we always divided the sum of all transfers made among the actual number of recipients in the group, regardless of the number of dropouts. We start by examining the data at the aggregate level, presenting an overview of feet massage information on redistribution decisions.

The distribution of SM contributions in response to each possible FM transfer can be found in S2 Appendix, in addition to a line graph Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum mean SM transfers in response to each of these FM transfers. Overall, mean SM transfers are found jmv increase modestly with FM la roche b5. However, additional pairwise paired t-tests and non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests between mean SM responses (with Bonferroni adjustments to account for multiple testing) suggest that there are some significant pairwise differences in SM transfers in response to some FM transfers.

Fig 3 presents mean SM contributions at each possible FM transfer level disaggregated by IA. To Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum whether there is a statistically significant difference between SM transfers in response to each FM transfer by anchor, we use a Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test, to compare the medians of the anchoring groups.

This shows that anchoring only impacts decisions made in response to selfish FM transfers. However, it can also be observed that mean SM transfers do not increase linearly with the size of the anchor.

Our results agree with the latter findings that extreme anchors have weaker anchoring effects. To verify if the differences in average responses to FM transfers Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum anchor are meaningful, we carry out mixed effects regression analyses on the full Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum set of individual SM strategy-method transfers.

In the models, we include the FM transfer amounts that SMs provided responses to, as well as key socio-economic influences on behaviour (age, gender and income). Additionally, we include a variable representing the order in which FM transfers were presented (first through sixth), to account for possible effects of time or repetition on stated contributions.

Finally, given the apparent interaction between anchor and FM transfer, we also Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Necon)- Multum models with interaction effects. Regression results are presented in Table 3.

In S5 Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum, we report results of similar regressions using only those 400 brufen made by SMs in groups without dropouts, to assess whether there are systematic differences in results when excluding groups with dropouts. As noted previously, dropouts were not observed by SMs when providing their conditional redistribution choices hence there should be no effect of dropouts on choices.

Results of these additional regressions confirm that there is no systematic difference in results. The dependent variable Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum cents transferred per second mover to the recipients.

In model 2, the dichotomous version of the IA variable has a positive influence on SM transfers, somewhat confirming results in model 1. Models 3 and 4 include additional terms for interactions between FM transfer and anchors (hence allowing for different slopes).

When modelled as dichotomous (model 4), there is no interaction effect. This can be observed visually quite clearly in the figure in the S6 Appendix, which shows SM contributions disaggregated by the dichotomous IA variable. Finally, female gender and age positively influence SM transfers, such that older females give more. The positive effect of gender on donations has been found in numerous studies (e.

Overall, results indicate that average SM transfers are influenced by the initial FM choice presented to them using the sequential strategy method, thus indicating the presence of an anchoring effect.

In the following section, we will examine the extent to which the anchor influences the response strategy selected by individual SM. SMs were categorized by fitting a linear model (using ordinary least squares) predicting the SM strategy transfer amount by the FM transfer (outlined in the Analysis Procedure section).

After fitting a linear model to the data from each participant Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum categorized them into four main groups, as outlined in Table 2. The distribution of SM types by each of the six anchors can be found in Table 4. This suggests that there are players whose redistribution strategies are susceptible to the anchor.

This figure is intended to complement Table 4 by providing a visual overview of the impact of anchors on the distribution SM types. However, results in the multinomial logit models confirm findings in the logistic regression models. Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum this paper, we have assumed that SMs either disregard the potential Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum of other second movers to FM contributions, or expect non-responsive or conformist behaviour of other SMs with respect to FM contributions.

However, if the expected behaviour of other SMs is negatively correlated with FM contributions, and if SMs mainly condition their responses on their expectations on how other SMs will behave, then this could lead to complications in interpreting SM responses and the classification of redistribution strategies in subsequent sections.

This is true across Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum SM types.



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