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Loading metrics Article metrics are unavailable at this time. Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work. Materials and methodsIn order to determine the costs of publishing in English experienced by Colombian researchers in biological sciences, 49 to academics were surveyed.

Download: PPT Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed in R v. ResultsA total of 49 responses were obtained from Colombian doctoral students or doctorates in biological sciences whose first language is Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum. Time invested writing a scientific article in English (EN) as a secondary language and in Spanish Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum as a first language.

Cost of translation and editing services of scientific articles from six publishers. Reading comprehension, interpretation of figures, scientific terminology Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum English (EN) vs.

Difficulty of writing the different sections contained in a scientific article in English (EN) and Spanish (ES). Anxiety level when making oral presentations in English (EN) vs. Relationship between socioeconomic status and English proficiency. DiscussionMany of the factors relating to publishing in English assessed in our study represent substantial costs in time, finances, productivity, and anxiety to Colombian researchers. Complete article in Spanish.

Survey questions in Spanish. Survey questions in English. Raw data obtained from the Survey in Spanish (original language). Short explanation of English as lingua franca in Science, English as a foreign language in Colombia and Implication of Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum in Science (in English and Spanish). View Article Google Scholar 2. View Article Google Scholar 3. The role of English in scientific communication: Lingua franca or Tyrannosaurus rex.

Journal of English for Academic Purposes. View Article Google Scholar 4. EF EPI 2018-EF English Proficiency Index-Europe. Dei GJS, Kempf A. Anti-colonialism and education: the politics of resistance.

Murphy J, Zhu J. Neo-colonialism in the academy. Anglo-American domination in management journals. View Article Google Scholar 7. Mapping knowledge controversies: Science, democracy Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum the redistribution of expertise. View Article Google Scholar 8. Writing for scholarly publication in English: The case of Hong Kong. J Second Lang Writ. View Article Google Scholar 9. Visibility of latin american scientific publications: the example of Bolivia.

View Article Google Scholar 10. J English Acad Purp. Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum Article Google Scholar 11. Curry MJ, Lillis TM. Global academic publishing: policies, perspectives and pedagogies. View Article Google Scholar 12. Hanauer DI, Sheridan CL, Englander K. Linguistic Injustice in the Writing of Research Articles in English as Letrozole (Femara)- Multum Second Language: Data From Taiwanese and Mexican Researchers.

Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum Article Google Scholar 13. Gulbrandsen P, Schroeder T V, Milerad J, Nylenna M. Paper or screen, mother tongue or English-which is better.

Lee O, Fradd SH. Science for All, Including Students From Non-English-Language Backgrounds. View Article Google Scholar 15. Specific language impairment: linguistic and neurobiological aspects. Self mutilation publishing in developing countries: Challenges for the future. Alves MA, Pozzebon M. 2872 to resist linguistic domination and promote knowledge diversity.

View Article Google Scholar 18. Languages Are Cimzia (Certolizumab Pegol Injection)- Multum a Major Barrier to Global Science. Benfield J, Howard K. The language of science. Eur J Cardio-Thoracic Surg.



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