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Top-Notch Team FIRST RF is a small business that boasts a happy and healthy workforce of 115 well-educated employees. The method is based on the acquisition of stimulated and spin echo 3D EPI images and was originally developed at 3T. We further optimized the method for use at 7T. The mean accuracy and precision of the optimized method across the brain was high with a bias less than 2. Citation: Lutti A, Stadler J, Josephs O, Windischberger C, Speck O, Bernarding J, et al.

PLoS ONE 7(3): e32379. Quantitative mapping methods give powerful insights into biological processes. Large susceptibility-induced inhomogeneities in the polarising field B0 are present in the human head at 7T.

However, these effects can be reduced by RF pulses with large amplitude and bandwidth. Here, we present an alternative approach (off-resonance minimization) where tonsil stones maximally achievable RF pulse amplitude is used for all nominal values and the RF pulse duration is proportional to the nominal flip angle value.

Three volunteer subjects were karl pfizer after giving written consent according to the declaration of Helsinki.

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Magdeburg. Additional phantom experiments were conducted on another 7T whole-body system (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) operated with a 32-channel receive coil (Siemens Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum, Erlangen, Germany). Image processing was performed offline using Matlab (The MathWorks Inc. A fully encoded set of reference images (no undersampling) was acquired prior to the image volumes.

The echo times were 35. All RF pulses were Hamming-filtered sinc pulses (time-bandwidth product of 6). A slab-selective pulse was used for spin excitation, and the SE and STE pulses were non-selective. Dummy repetitions were therefore omitted in the actual experiments. Despite the overlap between the regions affected by the RMS and B0 padding, B0 padding was still considered necessary in order to achieve systematic correction of bias due to off-resonance precession.

We chose three complementary criteria in order to assess the robustness of the 3D EPI method and show the improvements from the optimization presented here. For phantom acquisitions the long TR required by the reference acquisitions can Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum accommodated and such a comparison was implemented using the 2D DAM method described in (16) (see below).

Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum summary, the optimal 3D EPI protocol (large range of nominal flip angles with off-resonance minimization) was used on a group of 3 subjects on which the linearity, reproducibility and accuracy (compared to the AFI method) of the method were assessed.

The different aspects of the method optimization (flip angle range and off-resonance minimization) were tested on separate fractions of this group. Parallel imaging was not implemented for this acquisition.

As a result, the echo time TE was 50. All other acquisition parameters were identical to the in-vivo acquisitions. The RF excitation pulse was a non-selective Hamming-filtered sinc pulse with a nominal time-bandwidth product Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum 1. The spoiler duration was set to 11 and Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum ms for TR1 and TR2 respectively.

The repetition times were set to the minimum achievable value given the spoiler duration i. The total acquisition time was 4 min 32 s. Identical parameters were used for the acquisition of the phantom data. The excitation RF pulse was a slice-selective sinc pulse of duration 2560 us. The total acquisition time was 40 min.

Due to this long acquisition time this method was only used on the phantom. The red contour lines represent the Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum part of the brain, used as a region of interest for quantitative comparison of both methods. Figure 2b) and 2c) show typical non-linearity and instability maps. Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines in figure 3.

The most significant improvements following Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum dasatinib Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection (Pregnyl)- Multum found in the OFC, where B0 gradients and off-resonance effects were highest due to susceptibility effects (see figure 3e). The off-resonance bias was found below 5p. This is in good agreement with the experimental data showing a reduction in off-resonance bias around the OFC when off-resonance minimization is used.

Regions showing significant changes in non-linearity and instability are marked by red contour lines.



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