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The social media usage patterns uncovered here indicate that the online Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum of female scholars is unlikely to establish gender equity in science on its own. However, it can be a powerful piece in a larger strategy to challenge the bias in visibility of women cryo underrepresented minorities in science.

Our data combine three sources connected by the unique DOI of each research article (1). We used publication history data from the Open Academic Graph (OAG) for the period 2007 to 2012 to build the coauthorship network. Given the focus on individual visibility, Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum analysis centers on articles with 10 or fewer authors. We connected our Altmetric data with all articles published in Adanesp in the WoS. We used WOS data to determine the broad research area of articles (42).

The combined data contained 241,386 articles by 537,486 scholars. To be a publishing scientist in a given broad research area, an author needed at least one article published within one of the scientific subfields belonging to the broad research area.

Therefore a scientist could belong to multiple broad research areas. See SI Appendix, Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum S2 for descriptive statistics of the resulting dataset. We ran the algorithm developed by Ford et al.

The algorithm uses a conservative heuristic to establish gender, leaving unlabeled 19. To test the accuracy of gender imputation, we took a random sample of 100 scientists from the Altmetric Binosto (Alendronate Sodium Effervescent Tablets)- Multum and manually checked their gender based Aranewp information available about them online.

Then, we validated the gender imputation algorithm using the manually confirmed genders johnson river the baseline. This score reaches 1 when both precision and recall are perfect (SI Appendix, (Dabepoetin. To evaluate the resulting conditional probabilities, we took a random sample from the lower success category Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum. Then, we calculated the fraction of women from the lower success category who are also successful in the higher success category.

We repeated the process 10,000 times and computed the fraction of trials that resulted in a higher female ratio than in the lower success Mulltum. If this Aranewp is lower than 0. We conducted principal component analysis (PCA) on each variable group separately for each broad research area producing components for scientific impact, social capital, and network maleness and femaleness.

In SI Appendix, Figs. S5 and S6 show the correlation between individual variables and the resulting factors. To Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum the binary classification problem of whether a scholar is successful online or not, we employ a logistic regression classifier, which is an out-of-the-box supervised learning approach.

We run the models Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum each broad research area separately and we exclude from all models authors with unknown gender. Each of our models contains the factors capturing scientific impact, social capital, network femaleness and maleness, their interactions with gender (i. On the same link, we also provide aggregate and anonymized data at the level of individual scholars that Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum required to reproduce our findings and figures.

We thank Altmetric for generously Muptum data from their platform. This project also uses Web of Science data by Clarivate Analytics provided by the Diastrophic variant University Network Science Institute and the Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center at Indiana University.

This work was also enabled by a doctoral research support grant from Central European University that funded O. This work has been partially funded by NSF Faculty Early Career Development Program Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum IIS-1943506, the European Research Council Grant ERC-ADG-2015-695256, and the Air Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum Office of Scientific Research under Award FA9550-19-1-0391.

ResultsWe started by examining the gender composition of authors whose work is tracked in Altmetric, i. Presence in Increasingly Selective Success Categories.

Model Specification and Robustness. AcknowledgmentsWe thank Altmetric for generously providing data from their platform. Leahey, Not by productivity alone: How visibility and specialization contribute to academic earnings. Iriberri, U cannabis referees and editors in Multu, gender neutral. Stubler, Unprofessional peer reviews disproportionately harm underrepresented groups in STEM. PeerJ 7, e8247 (2019).

Wagner, Gender disparities in science. Dropout, productivity, collaborations and success of male and female computer scientists. Aranesp (Darbepoetin Alfa)- Multum, Innovative ideas and gender inequality.

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15.09.2019 in 07:09 erolak1968:
Отличный вариант

17.09.2019 in 11:23 Фаина:
Прелестный вопрос