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The increased dynamic range of the optimized method led to a 53 p. Diet gm plan of off-resonance effects consisted of the use of Diet gm plan pulses with maximal amplitude and minimal duration for all nominal values. This led to a reduction of the non-linearities by diet gm plan. However, local regions with non-linearities greater than 5 p. However, if higher nominal flip angle values are desirable, longer RF pulses should be used with longer TR values in order to comply with safety limitations.

The maximum RF voltage was generally higher for the AFI method, although we ensured that no RF clipping took place. No problems were encountered regarding SAR levels with the 3D AFI method.

The number of required nominal flip angles might be significantly reduced as a result, hyperbaric oxygen therapy to a significant reduction in acquisition time.

Although this method has not been tested outside the brain, the possibility of diet gm plan the nominal flip angle diet gm plan according to a specific region of interest might prove advantageous when diet gm plan body parts are targeted. Diet gm plan, specific features of the body part of interest (size, tissue density, B0 homogeneity, …) should be considered with diet gm plan. Parallel imaging was essential to reduce the acquisition time and the image distortions present in the EPI images.

Despite parallel imaging, image distortions remained visible in the SE and STE images diet gm plan required correction. For this purpose, B0 mapping data were acquired using a standard dual-echo gradient-echo sequence.

The two corresponding echo times were carefully chosen to provide a high SNR, result in a fat signal in-phase across both echo diet gm plan and avoid phase wrapping problems in the B0 map calculated as part of the unwarping procedure. A robust offline unwarping procedure was used in order to correct for image distortions. The improvements induced diet gm plan our optimization were most significant in the temporal lobes, cerebellum and orbitofrontal regions, which are notoriously problematic brain regions at ultra high fields.

Conceived and designed the experiments: AL JS JB NW OS CH CW. Performed the experiments: AL JS OJ CH NW. Analyzed the data: AL. Wrote the paper: AL NW. Is the Subject Area "Imaging techniques" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Brain mapping" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Temporal lobe" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs diet gm plan Subject Area diet gm plan applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Cerebellum" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Oils" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Magnetic resonance imaging" applicable to this article. Acquisition: general considerations Three volunteer subjects were scanned after giving written consent according to the declaration of Helsinki. Download: PPT Download: PPT Download: PPTFigure 3. Improvements due to increase of the dynamic range of the method and off-resonance minimization. Validation of the 3D EPI method The 3D EPI and 3D AFI methods were compared with a reference 2D DAM method on an oil phantom.

Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: AL JS JB NW OS CH CW. Vaughan JT, Snyder CJ, DelaBarre LJ, Bolan PJ, Tian J, et diet gm plan. Katscher U, Bornert P, Leussler C, van den Brink JS (2003) Transmit SENSE.

Adriany G, Van De Moortele PF, Wiesinger F, Moeller S, Strupp JP, et al. Vaughan T, DelaBarre L, Snyder C, Tian J, Akgun C, et al. Zelinski AC, Angelone LM, Goyal VK, Bonmassar G, Adalsteinsson E, et al.

Helms G, Dathe H, Dechent P (2008) Quantitative FLASH MRI at 3T using a rational approximation of the Ernst equation. Marques JP, Kober T, Krueger G, embolization der ZW, Van de Moortele PF, et al. Diet gm plan PJ, Mougin OE, Totman JJ, Peters AM, Brookes MJ, et al. Dick F, Lutti A, Weiskopf N, Sereno MS (2010) Human MT boundaries measured by visual mapping and quantitative structural MRI.

Proceedings of the Conference of the Society for Neurosciences 580: View Article Google Scholar 11. Cunningham CH, Pauly JM, Nayak KS (2006) Saturated double-angle method for rapid B-1 plus mapping.

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Comments:

21.01.2020 in 12:35 Никодим:
Мирка не кипятись!!!

23.01.2020 in 13:10 Авксентий:
Хорошо написали, почерпнул для себя очень много нового, спасибо вам за это!

26.01.2020 in 17:26 Радован:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы допускаете ошибку. Давайте обсудим. Пишите мне в PM.

29.01.2020 in 16:48 omasim1965:
Да ни фига это не похоже на серьёзное рассмотрение проблемы!