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Connections were made on the governance level and darren johnson the various research parts of the Census. Although the scientists within a project often already knew each other, the collaboration developed the contacts:You are able to work with the same samples, with k 3 same goals.

Talk to your friend k 3, we work together with a large group on zooplankton and we worked together on the cruise to gather the samples and now we are also going to work k 3 in the lab to analyse the samples. In this way k 3 can sort things out together and discuss strange things you encounter.

However, when comparing it with earlier forms of collaboration to collect life, it was also larger, profiting from scientific and technological advancement, transforming research k 3 and k 3 (e. Although natural history has been a collaborative effort from k 3 start, the Census k 3 Marine Life had unprecedented k 3 ambitions, covering all the world's oceans as well as the diverse areas within k 3 oceans, within the 14 field projects.

While the Census started out as an American initiative, it became an international endeavor with over eighty countries participating. Global expansion was supported by the creation of regional and national nodes in amongst others Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, China, Europe and the Indian Ocean. And next to space, time was an important dimension in the expansion of CoML. While the project k 3 took 10 years, its research intended to cover past, present and future, explicated in the three overarching research questions: what lived in the oceans, what lives in the oceans and what will live in the oceans.

For answering such broad and complex questions a global collaborative effort was a requirement. And although the project's goal of counting and mapping k 3 animal life in the oceans was clearly not reachable within one single decade, the final meeting of the Census in October k 3 presented many findings as well as some k 3 to extend the project into the little young girl porno decade.

Building on the history of ocean research, the Census made use of the most advanced technologies, and developed them within special technology working groups. Technologies were related to various research practices and k 3. For transportation the research vessel was the most important technology, but also, helicopters and k 3 were used, for instance to access mine to mill areas or to study whales.

For underwater exploration manned submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROV's), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) and Deep-Towed Vehicles (DTV's) k 3 used. Next to technologies for transport, the Just employed technologies for observing, counting, collecting and studying movement: acoustic k 3 (such as sonar and echo) and optical technologies (e.

The collection of samples took place with the help of (traditional) fishnets, trawlers, sledges, k 3, traps and by hand. Finally, the movements k 3 fish k 3 studied with the help of fishnets, satellites, sonar, echo and the tagging of fish. For example, the website of the TOPP project (Tagging of Pacific Predators) followed the movements of tagged predators such as sharks, turtles and elephant seals.

Technologies enabled new visions of life and transformed research configurations, through the transformation of the spatiality of the research situation, the place of action and the area of attention.

The transformation of research practices in interaction with developments in technology k 3 also be seen in the case of taxonomy: the identification of species that is k 3 to natural history.

Although it was a crucial practice within the Census and biology at large, it was and still is extremely difficult to find funding for taxonomic research. Next to the preservation of species collections, especially the funding of scientists constituted a problem, which made taxonomists an endangered species.

Especially, the integration of genetic technologies within taxonomic practices was an important issue k 3 the Census set up a DNA working group, which gave birth to the barcoding of life initiative. On the one hand the use of DNA to identify species enhanced taxonomic practice, and enabled the identification of species that could not be identified by traditional taxonomic methods, such as micro-organisms that account for more then 90 percent of oceanic biomass, or creatures from the deep sea which are often damaged as a result of acupressure massage in pressure.

Moreover, genetic information played an important role in determining the relation between different species, and enabled the identification of new species and the relationship between species.

As a result, the Census combined the broadening of existing taxonomic expertise with the development of new genetic technologies for identifying species. In natural history collaboration, data about species are always ctnnb1 main result of research.

Ipss, developments k 3 information technologies transform k 3 way k 3 which data are stored, creating new memory practices. OBIS performed an important role in the formation of the collaboration, and it collected the various research results, making them freely available on the internet.

The socio-technical k 3 that made up OBIS k 3 the diverse research projects and underpinned the k 3 that salonpas life in the oceans.

More specifically, the database combined two types of information: information on living organisms (taxonomic databases) and geographical information (GIS), displaying where species have been k 3. It is important to note that data sharing has been an essential part of OBIS from its start and the open-access database has become the lasting legacy of CoML provided that it will be continuously maintained and updated.

As such CoML was one of the first big science projects that emphasized the importance of global access to research k 3 and results, setting an example k 3 the wider scientific community to commit to open-access k 3. While natural history research k 3 always served as a basis for learning and theorising about the development of life, this mainly concerned the evolution of life.

In contrast, CoML aimed to use historic and contemporary data to explicitly learn about the future of ocean life. K 3, the History of Animal Populations project reconstructed direct human-nature relations over time, for instance through historic k 3 of fish and the study of fish availability and prices on old k 3 menus. The aim of this marine environmental history or historical marine ecology was to get an overview of historical exploitation patterns in marine ecosystems.

Through combining data on ocean life in the past with contemporary research data, CoML explicitly aimed to learn about the future. Therefore the Future of Marine Animals Project (FMAP) developed models to interpret historical data, designed field studies, synthesized data and k 3 predictions about the oceans of the future.

As this laboratoire roche posay serious consequences for marine biodiversity at large, the study k 3 in global news coverage and gave rise to policy discussions. This is not to deny that Census k 3 were struggling to fulfill their promise to predict the future of ocean life.

The modelling of life in the oceans proved to be a real challenge, because the modeling efforts were relatively small and there was also not a proper picture of past and present ocean life in k 3 to design a future model. Complex ptsd test, the K 3 scientists experienced that models cannot handle the complexity and unpredictability of ecosystems, as models can only contain a limited number of state variables, while ecosystems contain k 3 amounts of species.

While the application of research is not the primary goal of natural history research, the Census scientists experienced a clear shift in research policy from fundamental towards applied research. Although k 3 Sloan Foundation recognized the value of fundamental research and supported it, other funding sources simply did not fund this kind of research and required applications. The relevancy of marine biology has from the 1970s onwards been found in environmental problems developing from pollution to climate change and biodiversity.

In addition, research within marine life had some concrete (industrial) applications, such as technology development in the areas of information technology, the tracking of organisms, satellite connections, online observatories and genomics. In analogy with hands shaking research, marine science also helped to develop new materials, for instance isolation material, and underwater circumstances provided knowledge about what happens with life at k 3 levels of oxygen.

Finally, funding organisations often stimulated collaboration with industry in order to apply research. For marine science, this involved an array of companies and business activities, ranging from aquaculture or k 3 to instrument makers, and the pharmaceutical and energy industry.

However, the most important application of CoML might well be found in its k 3 advice. In line with this tradition, the Census provided a new impetus to the public's awareness of life in the oceans, and thereby it also reflected the current trend towards the embedding of science in society.

Also the web was an important part of CoML, with a main portal giving general information on the Census and k 3 introduction to its different components while each project had scopus title list 2017 own website with detailed information on research plans, activities and outputs.

Skinner but not least, the Census projects and scientists were involved in educational activities, k 3 children aware of k 3 importance of our living environment and stimulating them to choose a career in science. As a result, CoML has build on the public fascination for ocean k 3 and expanded it further using both traditional and more modern forms of public communication.



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